The Magazine for Tandy' Computer Customers Celebrating 10 Years riii A I 1 * 1 3> i Leadership I III Personal Computing I 1 I : : 1 - I , 1 I J * * \ Summer Issue 1 l Tried, true and triumphant Ten years ago this August, a handful of Radio Shack people, including myself, were in the Warwick Hotel in New York City excited and ready to tell the world about our new Radio Shack TRS-80 personal com- puter. Based on the Z-80 micro- processor, it had 4K of memory, included a CPU, keyboard, dis- play and cassette recorder and sold for $599.95. We were proud to present such an innovative, quality product. Earlier this month, at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York, an entourage of Radio Shack personnel, including my- self, commanded the attention of the industry as we announced five new additions to our Tandy computer product line. Again, we were proud to be presenting such innovative, quality products. The truth is, we've always been a leader in the industry and we absolutely plan to keep it that way. Our new products comple- ment our already powerful prod- uct line, enabling us to offer the right computer for everyone from businesses that need com- patibility and connectivity to first-time home users. WeVe been in the personal computer business as long as anyone, but we've been in the technology business a lot longer than most — over 66 years. We've learned what it takes to have sat- isfied customers who return to our stores and computer centers again and again. Quality, technology, compati- bility, connectivity and longevity are our watchwords for success. That's why we can say with pride that there is no better value than our product line. — John V. Roach Chairman, CEO and President Tandy Corporation TETTER S TO THE EDITOR Editor: Currently, my office, an agent for Chicago Title Insurance Company, op- erates two portable Tandy 200 computers. We use them to do title searches in various courthouses, where an abstractor types in all the information that was previously written manually. Back in the office, we print it on a form, without retyping a report. At the same time, we are able to commu- nicate through a local area network to a mini mainframe where I download all the title search information for later use and later reference and recall. In the six courthouses where we search titles, the first time we appeared with the computer, we attracted quite a bit of attention. People want to see what we are doing and what the end result will be. We have found that the time it takes us to do a completed title search has been cut down. William G. Schwab President Carbon County Abstract Co. Lehighton, PA NOTES FROM THE EDITOR Cause for celebration We hope you enjoy this special "ten years in computing" anniversary' is- sue of ANSWERS. We have loaded it with information about our company from our humble foray into the microcomputer industry' to our current po- sition as purveyor of the Number 1 selling PC-compatible. As Tandy computers are prevalent in school systems as well as busi- nesses, we've included a brief history of our Radio Shack Education Divi- sion and articles about two of the many educational institutions that have found our computers to be beneficial in both classroom and administrative applications. In the business profile articles in this issue, there is frequent reference to earlier models of our computers. While many of these systems have been upgraded, several are still serving the needs of a variety of businesses. That says a lot for the quality and longevity we continue to build into our computer products. With our new computer products, the pride continues. That's just cause for celebration! A bit of trivia While collecting information for our anniversary issue, we happened onto the board in this photo. As we were reminiscing about "the old days," we thought it might be fun to test your recollection of our computer product line. We'll tell you what it is in our next issue! Hint: It has something to do with one of our early models. Are you using your Tandy /Radio Shack computer in an interesting manner? We'd like to hear about it. Just send us a brief description of your application, including the software and model number of the computer you're using. If we select your application for possible inclusion in Answers Magazine, we'll contact you — so be sure to include your address and phone number. Letters sent become the property of the magazine. Sorry, we can't return any letters received (so don't include diskettes, photos, etc.). Address letters to: Answers Magazine. 300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76102. Summer 1987 ANSWER Vol. 2, No. 4 CUSTOMER PROFILES Crime fighting computers: Tandy portable computers help a Florida police department save time on reports 6 Simple reservations: An Illinois-based motel chain computerizes to better serve its patrons 8 On the air: Tandy computers are a vital part of a public broadcast station's operations both in and out of the control room 18 Scoreboard central: A Pennsylvania firm uses Tandy computers to track up-to-the minute sports information 20 Big profits for a small company: A Silicon Valley brokerage service relies on Tandv 3000s 22 FOCUS ON TANDY Ten years of excellence: A short history of Radio Shack's role in the computer industry 10 And now . . . : Radio Shack unveils its new Tandy computer products with fanfare in New York City . . 13 Getting better all the time: An 80386-based microcomputer heads the list of new Tandy computer products 14 FOCUS ON EDUCATION Commitment with conviction: Radio Shack's Education Div ision is dedicated to the educational computing community 24 The computer education edge: Determination and cooperation bring computers to a North Carolina school system 26 Not just for classrooms anymore: The library of a northwest university applies Tandy computers to a variety of tasks 28 In fine formation: The Tandy 1000 helps a southern university's marching band get in step ..31 SPECIAL REPORT The shape of things to come: Industry leaders discuss the future at Tangent's annual conference 4 Editorial Director David VI. Hrrki'i iii.il) Managing Editor Tana C. C-rnlili Contributing Writers Jay linger, Fran McCJehee , Michcle Ryan, Doug Shafer, Scott JC. Uofford Art Director Barry King Contributing Artists Doug Tipping, Del>orah Mams, Rick Fass Director of Photography John Timhlin Contributing Photographers Rav Proska, Rick Dvkes, Ccm Lon>, Scott K Woflord Typography Donna Levy Production Fred Rrussow, Janice Peace Entire contents ■■*■"■' Copyright I9S7, Tandy Corporation. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited. Answers Magazine is published quarterly by Tandy Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas 76102. The torn pans cannot be liable for pictorial or typographical errors. Not responsible tor unsolicited manuscripts or photographs Tandy, DeskMate. Profile, SCRIPSIT, Radio Shack and TRN SO registered TM Tandy Corp Answers/TM Tandy Corp. IBM. ProPrinter, Wheel Printer, PC/AT/XT, PCjr registered TM Internationa] Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS, OS/2, Microsoft Word. Xenix/registered TM Microsoft. Inc. ATfitT/TM AT&T Lotus 1-2-3/TM Lotus Development Corp. PFS/TM Software Publishing I'NIV Bell TM Bell Laboratories 3Com. 3 + . EtherSeries/TM 3Com Corp. Compau/TM Compaq Computer Corp. SuperCalc/TM Sorcim VisiCalc/TM Visit "orp. HP Laserjet Plus TM Hewlett-Packard dBase I HTM AshtonTate Word PerfectTM SSI Software FilePro 16 Plus/TM The Small Computer Co. Intel/TM Intel Corp. Commodore PFT/TM Commodore. Apple, Lisa/TM Apple Computer Co. Trackstar/TM Diamond Ace/TM Franklin. Adam/TM Coleco. Atari/TM Atari. Texas Instruments TM Texas Instruments. Kaypm/TM Kaypro. The Shape of Things to Come: The fifth annual Tangent business users meeting, held 1 April 27-29, WH7 in Fort Worth, Texas, brought Tandy computer users, Tandy (Corporation/ Radio Shack management and com- puter industry leaders together, \\ bile ma in su bjt *cts w ere addressed di i ring the three day conference, several re- curring themes clearly indicated there are definite roads the computer indus- try is taking in terms of advancements and the setting of standards. The infor- mation and quotes tised in this article are drawn from the text of speeches made during the conference. With the complexity of the com- puter market today, it is little wonder that Bill Cates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation called 19S7 'The year of great confusion in personal comput- ing." Amid the confusion, however, Gates conceded, "A lot of the answers are coining into place. UNIX and net- working are finally shaping up and now there's the OS/2 operating sys- tem." He also hailed OS/2 as "a very major step forward" that will remove the limitations of MS-DOS by allowing the running of multiple applications and access to more memory. More speed, better software The one topic repeatedly discussed at the conference was the hardware element Cates said would produce "far better machines" for the future: the Intel 80386 microprocessor. Ac- cording to Cates, oxer the next two to three years, the software industry will develop the pieces necessary to fully utilize the power of the 80386. In the interim, users can take advantage of the increased speed of the 80386 while using MS-DOS software and the forthcoming software for OS/2. "Once the system software and applications for the 80386 are developed," Cates said, "the industry will he on a plateau of relatixe calm for five to six xears ." Microsoft (Chairman. Hill Gates The introduction of the 80386 com- puters is a dexelopment which Doug Michels, Vice President of the Santa Cruz Operation, dex eloper of SCO XENIX, called "a major breakthrough in price/performance computing, which will he held hack due only to a lack of understanding as to the poten- tial of the new microprocessor. People haven't seen hoxv radical this break- through is because exerxbody insists on looking at both 80286 and 80386 machines as single user workstations," Michels explained. "What they miss is that with this much power, a lot of the computing that has traditionally been done with larger computers, will now be possible on a microcomputer." The importance of being standardized The widespread acceptance of the the IBM PC began an industry-wide move toward standards. These stan- dards have given the computer indus- try a sense of order and direction. Users, Michels said, have "seen the benefits of an industry adopting stan- dard hardware, software and operat- ing systems." From the user's point of view, a computer's value is based on having a wide range of softvv are from which to choose. According to Cates, although main standards have been set, there is a gap in standardized operating sv stems. "At the low end for single user systems, the standard clearly is MS-DOS and that will continue," he said. "At the very high end, machines costing more than three million dollars, IBM has set sev- eral kev standards." It is in the middle Computing in the Second Decade. area above MS-DOS and below main- frames where confusion exists as to xv hat the standard operating system will be. "Microsoft expects that mid- dle tier will be standardized by the UNIX/XENIX operating system," Cates predicted. Looking to the future of standards and Tandy computers, Tandy ( Corpora- tion President, (Chief Executive Offi- cer and Chairman of the Board, John Roach, sees the MS-DOS standard continuing because, as he said, MS- DOS is "the standard of compatibility the software industry is really support- ing." He assured users that as the OS/2 operating system comes into play, Tandy computers will support new standards of compatibility. Roach fur- ther stressed the company's commit- ment to the XENIX community; a sector of the microcomputer market- place where Tandy has long been a major force. Operating systems + applications = confusion Now that standards are being set in the multiuser arena, the debate — and a lot of confusion — continues over when it is best to use multiuser sys- tems, when it is best to use local area networks and when it is best to run stand-alone DOS. Michels gave his views on the XENIX/LAN/DOS con- troversy pointing out the applications best suited for each operating system. "There are many things that you can do on a LAN that you can't do on a multiuser system," Michels said. "If you need to run graphics software, the best bet is a single user DOS system. If you need to share resources, disks and printers, it is best to do that on a LAN. If you want to do word processing, accounting and database, a multiuser system is perfect and actually per- forms better than LANs." In Michels' opinion, when the goal is shared access to data, desktop PCs — even if networked — are not the answer. "To share data on a small mul- tiuser system is a problem which has been well solved because the solu- tions have evolved over fifteen years," Michels said. All for one, workgroup solutions As networking becomes more per- vasive, it will, like other forms of tech- nology, become more standardized. Before that can occur, however, some important market requirements will need to be satisfied to enable the net- work industry to move forward. Being an advocate of connectivity, Roach called the industry to action saying, "It is clearly time for network- ing to become a reality" While the industry continues to wrestle with the issue of connectivity, Roach said, it is clear that the need is to connect the total world through networks, mul- tiuser systems and any number of other protocols that are important to users today. Reinforcing Radio Shack's commitment to both value and con- nectivity, Roach said, "Our goal is rela- tively simple: To make connectivity of our hardware as simple as possible and do it on a building block basis so end users are not forced to invest in more connectivity than they need " A major part of Radio Shack's con- nectivity strategy involves the 3 + product family from 3Com Corpora- tion. William Krause, 3Com's Presi- dent, presented his views noting, "We have to continue to maintain an open systems architecture. We must make progress in ease of everything and pro- mote full connectivity which is both connection and communication." Workgroup computing technology, Krause said, is being driven by net- working technology being used in two kinds of applications, low bandwidth and high bandwidth. Low bandwidth applications are data entry, transaction processing, inventory control and ac- counting. High bandwidth applica- tions allow an emerging type of computing that is both graphics and network intensive and is oriented to office productivity. "People are buying networks for primarily economic reasons," Krause emphasized. "They want to gain the benefit of cost reduction by sharing expensive peripherals such as disk drives and printers." Another reason for networking is having the ability to run high bandwidth applications, such as computer-aided design and desktop publishing and to exchange informa- tion from the workstation and the workgroup server. Another key direction touched upon by Krause dealt with connectiv- ity. "I think we have discovered that people in business do not work stand- alone and they want to communicate as much as they need to compute," he said. "When considering a workgroup computing system, open systems ar- chitecture, whether it is based on DOS or UNIX, is important because it gives users the freedom and flexibility to pick and choose the application tools, both hardware and software, that best suit their needs." "For single user systems, the standard is clearly MS-DOS and that will continue. *t Workgroups + multiuser = the future of computing Although there will continue to be users wanting to do stand-alone com- puting, and others wanting to use mul- tiuser business applications, a higher percentage of users will want to do both. Accommodating users who de- sire both will necessitate the ability to run XENIX and MS-DOS on one net- work. Being able to access shared files on a server that is running either MS- DOS, XENIX or OS/2, Gates believes, will be the key to growth in the area of local area networks. For those whose computer needs can't be solved by choosing between DOS or XENIX, there's good news: XENIX and DOS can coexist. Accord- ing to Michels, a common coexistence solution is sharing a hard disk through partitioning. XENIX has a wide range of utilities that move data back and forth between partitions. A more advanced alternative is XENIX- NET, a merge between mul- tiuser and LAN that allows a local area network, a multiuser system and sin- gle user systems to be combined and interoperating. "I think, ultimately, most people, instead of using termi- nals or in addition to using terminals, will use PCs as desktop workstations," Michels said. Other glimpses of the future A revolutionary form of storage, op- tical storage, promises to take hold in the next few years. Known as compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM), the technology uses digital encoding to store up to 540 million characters of information, more than enough to store the Encyclopaedia Britannica, on a single disk. "CD-ROM is going to allow us to make the PC much more of a multi-media device," Gates said. "If you had to describe the one sin- gle application that we're really trying to make sense out of, it's this idea of the integrated office," Gates said. "You have stand-alone PCs, you have UNIX- based machines, you have minicompu- ters; but it's not easy enough to set up systems so that it really makes sense to have a computer on every desktop." In closing, Roach, who has been a major force behind Tandy computers since research and development was conducted on the Radio Shack TRS-80 in 1976, stressed Tandy Corporation's continuing commitment to deliver value, not just products, to end users. "We believe that we can firmly declare that we, more than any other MS-DOS compatible manufacturer, are selling value, not just boxes," Roach said. By drawing from more than ten years of experience in the microcomputer in- dustry, Roach said, Tandy Corporation will continue to "provide hardware features that clearly differentiate our products in the marketplace." The computer of your dreams In summary, Gates visualized what the dream machine of the future might be. "I see the single user workstation continuing to be based on an evolution of DOS, which now is OS/2. I see it having a graphic user interface and almost always being tied to a network. I really think that the pointing device, like the mouse, will become increas- ingly popular. I see all of these things coming together to create fantastic single and multiuser workstations. "I really believe that personal com- puters, for both large and small com- panies, will become a fundamental part of how that company does busi- ness. Of course, if that comes true, it will be very exciting because it means that although personal computing has grown a lot over the last five or six years, there will be a lot of growth ahead of us." Putting the byte into crime fighting Tandy computers provide an innovative edge for police investigations. Technology touches every aspect of our lives, sometimes without our ever realizing it. Such is the case with the Lakeland, Florida, Police Department where a Tandy 102 laptop computer is becoming standard issue equipment to field personnel. Since the introduction of laptop computers, officers complete their pa- perwork in about half the time. What does this mean to the citizens of Lake- land? It means police personnel are able to return to their patrol and inves- tigative duties 50 percent faster. After some experimentation, Offi- cer Joe Sah adore, computer coordina- tor for the Lakeland PD, decided to investigate a program the St. Peters- burg, Florida, Police Department had developed for Radio Shack Model 100 portable computers with a state grant. (See Answers, Winter 1986). After further evaluation of the St. Petersburg program, Lakeland pur- chased 67 Tandy 102s for field person- nel in October 1986. The department also purchased a Tandy 3000 HI) with a 40 megabyte hard drive, the XENIX operating system, and three DT-100 Using computers* Jot' Salvntore has strrnm- Uned the depart rm •tit's paperwork. terminals. The Tandy 3000 acts as a file server storing all reports written on the laptops. The report generator pro- gram installed in the 102s is a version of that used by the St. Petersburg po- lice. Since the program is written in BASIC, it is a straightforward process for police agencies to change the pro- gram to meet their specific needs, ac- cording to Sah adore. The Tandy 3000 uses a program spe- cially developed by a police supply company for police departments using laptop computers. The program also runs under XENIX. "The software allows officers to send their reports to be electronically manipulated by division supervisors at the station,*' Salvadore explained. "It divides the department into three divisions — patrol, criminal investiga- tion division (CID), and special inves- tigation unit (SIU). As a result, information is assured of being routed to the proper division." Laptop literacy Before officers are issued a Tandy 102, they must attend a 40-hour train- ing course conducted by ( officer Sah a- dore. In the course, they are taught computer literacy including how to write, edit, send and retrieve reports. They also receive information on com- puter crime. "Currently, 57 percent of Lake- land's 146 sworn police personnel who generate reports do so on a Tandy 102," Salvadore said. "We plan to have even officer equipped with a 102. In fact, we are including the cost of the computer in the overall cost of outfit- ting a new recruit." When an officer accesses the Tandy 3000 via laptop computer, he is asked for a badge number, his password and division. Each time an officer makes a call, he is required to file a report which is assigned an event, or incident, number. When the officer is ready to file a report, he again enters his divi- sion and the report event number which the Tandy 3000 HD validates. Reports are transmitted either through one of three direct connect lines in each division or externally over the telephone line. Additionally, the division supervisor responsible for approving reports can log onto the system at any one of the terminals in the department. The su- pervisor may review reports by keying in the corresponding report number. The computer brings the report up on the terminal screen exactly as it ap- pears on a printed page. After rev iew- ing the report, the supervisor will tfcfcfw d incident reports can l>e acx'essetl i/a a tl.it. i terminal. approve or disapprove the report and a printout is made. A DMP-2100P prints three copies of all approved reports and one copy of disapproved reports. The supervisor circles the areas on a disapproved report that need correc- tion and returns the report to the offi- cer who then makes his corrections on his 102. Information search and seizure The Lakeland PD has taken its ap- plication a step beyond that of St. Petersburg by using the Tandy 3000 HD to provide electronic archival stor- age of the department's more than 5,400 reports to date. The computer will list all approved and disapproved reports by event number. A built-in accounting system keeps track of who signs on, when and the amount of time spent on the system. Officer Salv adore says one of the many advantages of the system can be seen when making investigative inqui- ries. "We can do a single, double or triple word search on all reports in the svstem. The Tandv 3000 will list the reports by event number that meet the search criteria and generate a printout of the first three lines of every report found in the search." According to Salvadore, there have been arrests made based on investiga- tive inquiries using the information stored in the Tandy 3000. For us to make a request from central data proc- essing usually takes at least 24 hours," Salv adore explained, "Even then, cen- tral DP does not store the entire report like we do here." Newly-appointed Chief of Police Ronald Nenner was commander of CID when the computer project went into effect. "Because of the nature of our investigations (in CID), we gener- ate a lot of paperwork," he said, adding that they have received many positive comments on the project. "The State Attorney's office is very happy with the system. They have commented on how much easier it is to read our reports now, since there are very few mistakes or spelling errors." Big bucks benefits Not only has the system proved to be a time saver, but the department has also seen actual cost sav ings. Accord- ing to Salvadore, the department had been -ordering report forms on a monthly basis. In October and Novem- ber 1986, the department spent $1,150 and $1,350 respectively on re- port forms. In December, however, the amount dropped to $55. As of April 1987, the department still had a suffic- ient supply of forms for officers who had not received their 102s and were still doing reports by hand. "We Ye sav- ing big bucks just in report forms and correction fluid," Nenner added. Currently, the department uses a system which may require up to four forms to complete one report. The 102 can typically take a five-page form and reduce it to one page, using only those modules within each report that are needed. "The average report is five pages," Salvadore noted. "This year, we made 50,000 service calls, of which 20,000 will probably result in a paper- bound report at a cost of approxi- mately 50 cents per report. The computer will generate a single page of a report at seven-tenths of a penny per page. There's an immediate cost savings." The reactions from officers have been very favorable. The laptops have been so popular that, when a rumor started that the computers were going to be removed, many officers began asking Ray Dils, manager of the local Radio Shack Computer Center, to talk with Officer Salvadore and persuade him to keep the laptops. The system is used for more than just archiving and processing reports. On the Tandy 3000, the staff sergeant uses the filer program on DcskMate II for inventory puq>oses. Additionally, officers have discovered the conven- ience of using electronic mail to leave messages for officers on other shifts. A 40-hour computer course is mm part of an officer's training. Lakeland has plans for its system, which is under study by several local police departments and the sheriff's department. One feature Lakeland hopes to implement soon will aid local newspapers in obtaining police infor- mation. Currently, when a report is approved, the system will ask if the information is to be released to the press. If so, the system removes the phone numbers and addresses of suspects and victims listed and places the information in a "Press File " ( )nce additional coordination activities are completed, newspaper reporters can call in and retrieve the information electronically. A long term goal is to network the entire county to facilitate easier and timelier exchange of information among law enforcement agencies. "We are really happy with the sys- tem," Salv adore concluded. "The offi- cers like them because they can get their paperwork done in about half the time, which means they have more time to do the rest of their job — protecting citizens." Keeping havens "hassle-free" for Relatively inexpensive gasoline prices and discounted airline fares have created a prosperous boom in the travel and tourism industry. The eco- nomic impact associated with this thriving trade has spawned a competi- tive spirit among hotels, motels and resorts eager to offer a little "rest and relaxation** to today *s traveler. Regal 8 Inns, a motel chain head- quartered in Mt. Vernon, Illinois, has captured a sizeable portion of that The Model 100 is a mainstay in Regal 8 lobbies nationwide. market with an ingenious plan to pro- vide "hassle-free'* service and com- fortable accommodations to its patrons at a fraction of the usual cost. When the company opened its first property in 1970 in Paducah, Ken- tucky, the concept of a mid-priced mo- tel with more than adequate services appealed to many travelers. Today, Regal 8 Inns operates 52 properties in 21 states employing more than 1,000 people nationwide. As the company grew rapidly, the need for computer- based operations became apparent. "In 1981, during inflationary times, we had some very difficult pricing de- cisions to make," explained D. Bruce Geary, President of Regal 8 Inns. "I went to a Radio Shack and bought our first microcomputer, a TRS-80 Model III, and VisiCalc software to build a pricing program for about thirty dif- ferent properties at the time.** Geary readily admits his knowledge of computers was limited. He had seen demonstrations and read articles. "I stayed up that night and read the manuals and went through the pro- gram. Rather than building a fictitious example, I developed a model for our business. We still use that same pro- gram today, but that was only the beginning.'* Reservations central To record more than 200,000 reser- vations annually and track countless telephone calls made from more than 6,000 rooms, Regal 8 Inns resolved to computerize operations nationwide and developed two very unique appli- cations. The company's reservation center, located in Centralia, Illinois, is designed totally around the Tandy 6000 multiuser business computer. "We started with the Model 16 and upgraded to the Tandy 6000. We needed the multiuser capabilities and, ■HMQyyjyttm Discussing future plans are (left to right) Gene Rogers, David Persclwacher, P.VJ. Rao and Bruce Geary: quite frankly, there were very few companies in the multiuser market,*' said Geary. "Tandy was very inventive when they introduced the Tandy 6000 computer. We've used it to its capacity with the XENIX operating system.** The system, though somewhat com- plicated in design, is simple and effec- tive peformance-wise. When the reservations operator receives an in- quiry, regardless of whether or not a reservation is made, the information is entered into a DT-100 terminal and transmitted to the primary Tandy 6000. This computer is equipped with an internal 15 megabyte hard disk and an external 35 megabyte hard disk. A second identical Tandy 6000 con- weary travelers Rao has found the Tandy portables nearly indispensable. nected to the primary system also re- ceives the information. "We've created a redundant paral- lel system that backs itself up automat- ically for continuous operation," said Geary, "but, based on our experience with Tandy's product reliability and service, the duplicate system isn't re- ally necessary." "Reservation problems really come down to the human element. We just don't have problems mechanically with the equipment" added Gene Rogers, reservation center manager. A third Tandy 6000 computer with two internal floppy drives and an ex- ternal 15 megabyte hard disk is con- nected to the secondary Tandy 6000 and is used only as an outbound termi- nal. On both a national and in-state WATS telephone line, the third com- puter builds a report even two hours which includes reservations, changes and/or cancellations and sends the in- formation to each Regal 8 Inn across the country'. Portables and paper work With the exception of hard copies of records, computerizing the reserva- tion center has virtually ended time- consuming paper work and, thus, reduced labor costs. Each Regal 8 Inn office is equipped with a 32K Radio Shack Model 100 portable computer and a DMP-105 printer to receive and document reservation information. A custom accessory designed by management personnel, P.V.J. Rao and David Perschbacher, allows the Model 100 to automatically answer the telephone. If, for any reason, the computer does not receive the infor- mation, the reservation center is im- mediately notified and the situation corrected within minutes. Regal 8 has also implemented the Model 100 into its telephone account- ing system. Several years ago, deregu- lation in the communications industry allowed not only private ownership of telephones but also spelled out major changes in telephone billing for the motel/hotel industry. For example, if each Regal 8 Inn had direct-dial tele- phones installed and was equipped to collect telephone usage data, substan- tial savings in operator assistance costs would be realized. "Rao got very involved in designing a computer system that would load the call information into the computer, calculate the minutes, determine where the call went and price out the call," said Geary. The software program, written in BASIC, tracks and prices every tele- phone call made from the motel by room number. According to Geary, the in-house system and Tandy computers have reduced the cost per installation 75 percent over comparable commer- cial call accounting products. "Eighty percent of our properties now have cost accounting systems us- ing Model 100 computers. They pro- vided the battery backup capabilities we needed," explained Rao. "That's the reason we went in that direction." Data and messages concerning pay- roll, night audits and supply requests can also be transmitted to the corpo- rate headquarters via the Model 100. The company is currently testing and assessing this application. Regal 8 Inns' future project is to implement computer-based cash reg- isters throughout the chain. Once again, the company has chosen Tandy computers. "All of our future cash reg- isters will be either Tandy 1000 SXs or Tandy 3000s," concluded Geary. From TRS-80 to Tandy: Ten years of leadership in personal computing TRS-Mh 1977 Model 11 1979 Model III, 1980 Color Computer, 1980 Pocket Computer, 1980 Model 16, 1982 Model 12, 1983 Model 4, 1983 Model 100, 1983 10 "We weren't exactly sure who we were going to sell them to, but it was fairly clear to me that microcomputers had great potential with our tradi- tional customers." Thus reflected John V. Roach, President, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Tandy Corporation, speaking of his company's foray into the microcom- puter industry a scant ten years ago in 1977. The introduction of the Radio Shack TRS-80 on August 3 of that year not only had a profound effect on the corporation, hut also contributed to a revolution in society which would ulti- mately lead to the Age of Information. While microcomputers were availa- ble prior to 1977, they were mostly in kit form. The introduction of ready-to- run preassembled computers like the Radio Shack TRS-80, Apple and Com- modore PET, laid the foundation for the movement of microcomputers into businesses, schools and homes on a large scale. Recalling the product in- troduction at the Warwick Hotel in New York City, Roach gibed, 'There wasn't much computer media then. In fact, most of the media didn't know what a microcomputer was, much less care." Rv December 31, 1977, Radio Shack had* delivered 5,000 TRS-80s, 4,000 units more than originally intended for production. "We thought we were re- ally doing something," chuckled Roach. One distinct advantage the company had was its nationwide distri- bution chain of over (at that time) 3,000 Radio Shack electronics stores. But getting the word about micro- computers to the public through stores wasn't enough. The February 1978 issue of Time magazine featured "The Computer Society" which served to raise public interest in com- puters. It was at that same time that Radio Shack took to the road in a whirlwind of modern day barnstorm- ing to introduce the public to its microcomputers through a series of computer shows staged in over 100 major cities from coast to coast. As the public's awareness of micro- computers gained momentum, the business world began to take notice. Even the major computer companies with mainframe computers as their mainstay became attentive as micro- computers began to appear in data processing and other areas performing a variety of tasks in all types and sizes of businesses. Anticipating this trend, Radio Shack was ready to accommodate business users and in May 1979, introduced the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model II as a pro- fessional, business-oriented micro- computer complete with built-in disk drive, 80-column screen, and a propri- etary TRS-DOS operating system. "There were significant improve- ments in technology which allowed us to produce the Model II at such a low cost for that time period," said Dr. John Patterson, Senior Vice President, Tandy Computers. "We definitely had a specific market in mind for that machine." It was this kind of planning and strategy that resulted in Radio Shack having one-fifth of the microcomputer marketplace in these vintage years. 1979 also marked the introduction of VisiCalc, a major spreadsheet software effort that provided the conduit for management information systems (MIS) managers to justify bringing mi- cros into the office. Bill Cates and his entrepreneurial Microsoft Corpora- tion continued to gain recognition as a driving force in the software sector of the industry having been instrumental in the development of BASK' for Radio Shack and other pioneering computer companies. 1980 saw the appearance of micro systems from new companies as well as established mainframe companies. Radio Shack introduced the Color Computet; targeted to the home users; the Pocket Computer I for students and field-oriented professionals; and the Model III, an updated version of the original TRS-80 but with the screen, keyboard and CPU all in one unit, a feature that would lead to that machine's acceptance into the educa- tion market. (See page 24) The credibility culprit Despite undercurrents which would eventually sweep microcom- puters into the homes, schools and businesses of America, credibility, rec- ognition and widespread acceptance were slow in coming due in part to competition among proprietary oper- ating systems and the lack of a defined and accepted standard. Roach recalled, "It was as if micro- computers weren't reality. It wasn't until around 1980 and '81 — probably with the IBM PC announcement — that the industry began to get some attention, some legitimacy. And, of course, then the press got involved." To Roach, the IBM announcement was important because "all these comput- ers were getting into businesses. But they weren't coming in through the front door; the employees were bring- ing them in and using them on their own. With IBM's announcement, the MIS directors had the opportunity to regain control of what was going on in their operations." IBM's entry into the personal com- puter market in 1981 did indeed seem to give the machines instant credibility in the business arena which in turn threw open the doors of education which would need the machines to prepare students for the future. These events in turn made micros We rigueur in the home. New and sophisticated were the watchwords of the ensuing boom years for personal computers as software de- velopers like Lotus Development Cor- poration rushed to take advantage of IBM's open architecture and start-up hardware companies like Compaq be- gan cloning the machine. Radio Shack quietly stood as a bea- con providing quality products with value pricing backed by an extensive service and support network it had been steadily building. The introduc- tion of the Model 16 in 1982 and subse- quently the XENIX operating system moved Radio Shack into the 16-bit world. Tsunh 2000, 19H3 11 Tandy 6000, 1984 Tund\ 1000, 1984 Tandy 3000, 1985 "It was a decision process of select- ing what we thought would he the op- erating system of the future," said Dr. Patterson. "The CPU, operating sys- tem and applications software all go together and there was more software written for UNIX at that time in the mini world. A good deal of that soft- ware was written in C, By using XENIX, we could recompile a lot of the C applications and move them right into the Model 16 very quickly." Subsequently, Radio Shack soon boasted the largest installed base of XENIX users in the nation. More to come In 1983, Radio Shack introduced over ten new computer configurations including the Models 4, 4P, 12, Color Computer 2 and the Radio Shack Model 100 portable laptop computer which became an overnight success, particularly with journalists who liked its convenient size, weight, built-in software and modem. The Tandy 2000, Radio Shack's first MS-DOS compati- ble computer, heralded the computer product line nomenclature change from Radio Shack to Tandy. Marking the significance of micro- computers, 77/ne magazine named the personal computer "The Machine of the Year" for 1983, a year that was to be fraught with failures and a resultant slump in the industry as users became disillusioned and more demanding. Determined to maintain its place as a leader in the microcomputer indus- try, strategists at Radio Shack surveyed the marketplace, made a decision and announced its entry into the PC- compatible world in November 1984 with the introduction of the Tandy 1000. Within a year, that machine was the number one selling PC- Color Computer 3, 1986 compatible. "As in the past, we proved ourselves to be the price/performance leader, especially in terms of features and functions we provide initially as opposed to being 'add-ons' from other manufacturers," noted Roach. In 1985, Radio Shack went itself one better by making the Tandy 1000 the first PC -compatible to sell for under $1000. Radio Shack virtually had something for everyone from Color Computers and laptops to PC/XT and PC/AT compatibles, XENIX and net- work systems. Never one to rest on its laurels, Radio Shack reinforced its status with more new product introductions in 1986. The Tandy 1000 SX and EX, the Tandy 3000 HL and the Color Com- puter 3 were but some of the products designed for the business, education and home markets. With the addition of the 3Com workgroup products in 1987, Radio Shack reassured its position as a leader in the com- puter industry. But product is not Radio Shack's only focus. Over the years, manage- ment has formulated the parameters Tandy 1000 EX, 1986 Tandy 3000 HL, 1986 for a superior service and support or- ganization. Sales strategies incorpo- rated the addition of an outside sales force 1,200 strong and reinforcement of value added reseller programs. Radio Shack has been bringing the products of technology to market for over 66 years. As the company enters its second decade in computers, the market will continue to turn to Radio Shack for quality, compatibility, tech- nology, connectivity and longevity. That's why there is no better value than Tandy computers. 12 I^eft: Technicians man the me- dia control room. Above: Nota- bles from the industry watch the film presentation. Above: Tandy Chairman John Y. Roach began the proceedings which were attended ova capacity crowd (right). Below: Radio Shack President Rernie Appel at the podium in Dallas, Texas, with Roach from New York on the screen. Simulcast highlights Tandy's press conference Enthusiasm was running high in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel on Monday, August 3, 1987. Not even a New York summer shower could dampen the spirits of Tandy Corporation and Radio Shack executives who had called a press conference to commemorate the company's ten years as a leader in the computer industry and to introduce major new Tandy computer products. Using simulcast satellite technology, the conference began with an upscale multi-media visual presentation which depicted a short history of the computer industry. At the film's end, Tandy Presi- dent, CEO and Chairman John V. Roach bounded to the podium and welcomed the capacity crowd of over 300 journalists and security analysts. Roach also welcomed some 2000 Radio Shack field personnel who were taking part in the festivities via satellite at the annual meetings of the company's Business Products Division in Dallas, Texas, and of the Western Division, Consumer Products in Ana- heim, California. This simulcast event marked the first time field personnel had participated in major new product introductions. Radio Shack President Bernie Appel addressed the conference from the Dallas meeting and introduced Rob Myers, Vice President, Business Products. The enthusiasm of the field people was obvious as their cheers and applause were projected to New York and Anaheim. In addition to Roach and Appel, Tandy executives making pre- sentations in New York were Dr. John Patterson, Senior Vice President, Tandy Computers; Dr. Scott Cutler, Senior Director, Software; and Mark Yamagata, Senior Director, Computer Products. Radio Shack's commitment to software compatibility was emphasized by presentations from Bill Gates, Chairman, Microsoft; William L. Krause, President and CEO, 3Com Corpo- ration; and Paul Brainerd, President, Aldus Corporation. Other industry dignitaries in attendance included Bruce Bas- tion, Chairman of the Board, WordPerfect; Bruce Davis, CEO, Activision; Ed Esber, CEO, Ashton-Tate; Fred Gibbons, President and Chairman, Software Publishing; Dennis Hayes, President, Hayes Microcomputer Products; Roger Johnson, President, CEO and Chairman of the Board, Western Digital; W.M. "Trip" Hawkins, President and Chairman, Electronic Arts; and Bob Met- calfe, Chairman of the Board and Senior Vice President, Technol- ogy, 3Com. ■1 O Below: Media representa- tives interview the Tandy CEO. Right: Thumbs up from Philip Halev; Man- ager, Radio Shack TV/AV Department indicate the event's success. n The new look of On August 3, 1987, at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City, Radio Shack announced the latest additions to its best-selling line of PC compatible computers and a state-of- the-art laser printer. These products reinforce the compa- ny's position as a leader in the personal computer industry. With a product line that covers most any application, the new Tandy computers lead the way in quality and technology — at prices that are extremely competitive. The Tandy 4000 80386 power for today and tomorrow Based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the Tandy 4000 microcomputer rivals mainframes and minicomputers for speed and functionality. In fact, literature on the Tandy 4000 describes performance in MIPS — a mainframe term speci- fying Millions of Instructions Per Second. (The Tandy 4000 is rated at almost 3 MIPS, versus less than 1 MIPS for an 8 MHz PC AT) The four mode, 32-bit microprocessor allows MS-DOS software designed for the IBM PC and AT to run at a much faster 16 MHz clock speed. Additionally, when new operating systems become available, such as OS/2, the Tandy 4000 will deliver the full potential of the 80386 processor. The Tandy 4000 is outfitted with a 1.4 megabyte, 3 l k" disk drive. Two additional internal disk drives can be added with any combination of 3 f /2" drives, 5 1 /-*" drives, hard disks or disk cartridges. Incorporating single in-line memory modules (SIMM), one megabyte of memory is standard and memory is expandable to four megabytes. Using one- megabit chips, total system memory can be expanded to 16 megabytes. The Tandy 4000 is the computer of the future. The Tandy 1400 LT MS*DOS power in a portable computer MS-DOS compatibility is only the beginning for the Tand) 1400 LT laptop computer. Because it's portable, popular programs like Lotus 1-2-3 or Microsoft Word can be used virtually anywhere. In the office, the Tandy 1400 LT is as powerful and functional as a desktop computer. One of the most notable features of the 1400 LT is its display. While many laptops have standard Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD), the 1400 LTs 80-character by 25-line dis- play utilizes the latest backlit "supertwist" LCD technology for sharp resolution and easier reading in low light. The 1400 LT comes with two 720K 3 l k" disk drives which provide over 1.4 megabytes of disk capacity. The 1400 LT runs at a fast 7.16 MHz clock speed. That's 50 percent faster than most other PC-compatible laptops. Despite its impres- sive capabilities, the 1400 LT weighs only 13'/2 pounds and has a convenient carry handle for true portable comput- ing power. II computing power HIIIIIIIIIIMIllL J The Tandy 1000 TX A breakthrough price for 286 technology With an 80286 microprocessor, the Tandy 1000 TX is destined to change the rules by which price/performance computing will be judged. With the 80286, the processing speed of a TX is over six times faster than a standard PC XT* and over three times faster than the IBM Model 30. The Tandy 1000 TX is designed with a durable 3'/2" disk drive which can store 720,000 characters of data. A second internal Vk" disk drive or a S'/V disk drive can be added allowing the system to be tailored to the needs of the user. The 80286 8 MHz microprocessor runs all the popular MS-DOS programs faster than standard 8088-based PCs. For added value, the Tandy 1000 TX includes MS-DOS 3.2, GW-BASIC and Personal DeskMate 2— everything neces- sary to begin computing. Personal DeskMate 2 features pull- down menus and "dialogue boxes" that make selecting operations easy, a new Music program and Paint function, in addition to text, spreadsheet, database and calendar programs. The Tandy 1000 TX comes standard with 640K RAM. Five card slots make it easy to expand with an internal modem, a 20-megabyte hard disk card, or an adapter for connecting to a workgroup environment. Add- ing more value, the TX includes many features that cost extra on other PCs — monochrome and color graphics, a parallel printer adapter, two joystick adapters, a headphone jack with volume control and an RS-232C serial port. I The Tandy 1000 HX No more loading MS-DOS from disk The innovative spirit behind Tandy computers is evident in the 1000 HX, the first desktop computer designed for home use with MS-DOS in ROM built-in. When powered on, MS-DOS is loaded automatically and is ready to run. This ease of operation pkis the low cost makes the Tandy 1000 HX ideal for the home or classroom. The 1000 HX has a number of features including 256k RAM, a 3 l k" 720K disk drive and room for a 3 l h" second internal disk drive. For maximum flexibility, the HX also supports an external S'/V disk drive. Also included is a three-voice sound circuit for generating music, and a head- phone jack with volume control. The PC-compatible HX runs all the popular MS-DOS programs. The Tandy 1000 HX comes with Personal DeskMate 2, an enhanced version of the versatile six-in-one Per- sonal DeskMate program. In the tradition of all Tandy 1000s, the HX offers conveniences that cost extra on other PCs including adapters for joysticks, monochrome and color monitors and a printer. * Based on Norton Utilities Computing Index Version 4.0. 15 NeW ProduCtS (Continued) The Tandy LP 1000 Affordable desktop publishing is here As part of a complete desktop publishing package or as an addition to existing computer hardware, the LP 1000 laser printer makes any printed computer output sharper, clearer and more professional looking. Now, spreadsheets and word processing manuscripts can he produced with near typeset quality at a fraction of the cost of professional typesetting. When used with one of the many desktop publishing software packages, the LP 1000 produces laser-sharp origi- nals using a combination of both text and graphics. With all its features, the LP 1000 is designed to make printing possi- bilities almost unlimited. In addition to desktop publishing, the LP 1000 is com- patible with industry standard software packages al- lowing typeset quality printing of all types of computer-generated output including word proc- essing and spreadsheets. Portrait and landscape modes allow the han- dling of a \ariety of printing jobs. Users may select from the foui resident fonts and two downloada- ble custom software fonts. The resident fonts. Let- ter Gothic, Prestige Elite, Courier and Century PS, available in 10, 12 and 16.7 pitch, are selected from the front panel or via the software. Users may also select the graphics mode offering 300x300 dots per inch on a full page. The LP 1000 operates quietly while handling jobs such as new sletters and bro- chures. Correspondence that once had to be contracted outside can now be conveniently pro- duced in the office at a rate of up to six pages per minute. In addition to its quiet operation, the LP 1000 is compact, requiring no more space than conventional printers. The Tandy LP 1000 includes a controller board as a stan- dard feature, as well as 1 .5 megabytes of memory for full page graphics printing — a welcome alternative to high priced "extras." Included in this standard controller are emulations for Tandy, IBM Proprinter, IBM Wheelpi inter and the HP Laser Jet Plus. 16 System Overviews Tandy 4000 Microprocessor: Intel 80386 with 32-bit data path. Clock Speed: 16 MHz. Object code compatible with 8086/8088. Operating System: Optional MS-DOS 3.2 with BASIC or XENIX System V. Memory: / megabyte RAM (expandable to 4 megabytes). Total sxstem expandable to 16 Mb using 1 -megabyte SIMMs. Keyboard: 101 -key enhanced keyboard. Disk Drive: 3 l k" floppy disk drive (1.4 megabytes). Three front drive slots. Display: Optional high-resolution non-glare, non- interlaced, 12" monochrome (green) or 14" color monitor (80 or 40 characters per line by 25 lines). Internal Expansion: Six AT and two XT slots. One dedi- cated 32-bit memory expansion slot. Optional 80287 math co-processor can be added. One XT-slot used for serial/ parallel adapter (included). External Connections: Standard serial and parallel ports. Tandy 1400 IT Microprocessor: NEC V-20 (8088 equivalent). Clock Speed: 7.16/4.77 MHz (switchable). Operating System: Includes MS-DOS/GW-BASIC 3.2. Memory: 768K RAM, 16K ROM. 640K accessible by MS-DOS, 128K available for RAM-based disk drive or print spooler. Keyboard: Full-size, 76 keys. LED Indicators: Caps Lock, Num Lock, Low Battery, Scroll Lock, Standby Mode. Display: Backlit 4t Supertwist" LCD, 640 x 200 pixels, 80x25 characters, aspect ratio 1:1.4. Optional RGBI color monitor. Disk Drives: Two internal 720K 3 l k n double-sided, dou- ble density Modem: Optional 1200-baud, Hayes-compatible modem. External Connections: AC adapter, parallel printer, serial port, RGBI color monitor, composite video out, external disk drive, enhanced keyboard. AC Adapter: 15 VDC 700 mA, UL listed. Battery: Removable, rechargeable, 12 volt, 2200 mAh. Ex- tras available. Other Features: Battery-powered clock/calendar, standby mode and speaker. Dimensions: 14.5x12.4x3.5'! Weight: 13.5 lbs. Tandy 1000 TX Microprocessor: Intel 80286. Clock Speed: 8/4MHz, software selectable. Operating System: MS-DOS 3.2 with GW-BASIC. Memory: 640K RAM, expandable to 768K (640K for MS-DOS, 128K for video memory). Includes power- up diagnostics. Keyboard: Integral 90-key sculptured, including numeric- entry pad. Disk Drive: One double-sided, double-density 720K 3*k" floppy. Video Modes: Text: 80 or 40 characters per line by 25 lines, 256 character types. Graphics: CGA compatible with enhancements; 640 x 200 pixels, 4-color; 320x200, 16-color. Internal Expansion: Five user-accessible IBM PC- compatible card slots (10" maximum length). 80287 math co-processor. Second (3 l k" or 5 l U") disk drive. External Connections: Standard parallel adapter, compos- ite video out, line level audio out, RS-232 serial port, two joysticks, RGBI color monitor. 1 Ih" headphone jack with volume control. Tandy 1000 HX Microprocessor: Intel 8088-2. Clock Speed: 7.16/4.77 MHz, software selectable. Operating System: MS-DOS 2.11 with GW BASIC. Memory: 256K RAM, expandable to 640K. Includes 128K ROM and 256 bits EEPROM with MS-DOS resi- dent, BIOS, diagnostics, system configuration and user interface. Keyboard: Integral 90-key sculptured, including numeric- entry keypad. Disk Drive: One double-sided, double-density 720K 3 l k" floppy Video Modes: Text: 80 or 40 characters per line by 25 Unes, 256 character types. Graphics: CGA compatible with enhancements; 640 x 200 pixels, 4-color, 320x200, 16-color. Internal Expansion: One "PLUS" style expansion board or two "PLUS" style expansion boards when used with Memory PLUS Expansion Adapter (25-1062). Second 3*/2" disk drive. External Connections: 5 l /t" 360K or 3*h" 720K external disk drive, standard parallel adapter, composite video out, RGBI color monitor, 1 /h" headphone jack with volume control, two joysticks. Tandy LP 1000 Print Speed: 6 pages per minute. Internal RAM: 1.5 megabytes. Resolution: 300x300 dots per inch. Printable area max. 8" wide, 13 l k" long. Printable area at 300 dpi, 8*kx 11" sheet. Paper Size: Letter, legal, half-letter, A4, A5, B5, 4-8 l k" wide and 8 5 /ie x 14" long. Paper tray holds 150 sheets 200 bond max. Duty Cycle: 3000 sheets average per month. Interfaces: Video, Centronics parallel. Dimensions: 8 5 /ifiX 16*/igX 16"ftf? Weight: 37.5 lbs. Power: 120 VAC, 60 Hz. Emulations: Tandy, IBM ProPrinter, IBM WheelPrinter, HP LaserJet Plus. 17 MfLfP m&m} Creating computer applications in-house makes budgetary sense for a Pennsylvania PBS station* Public Broadcasting station WITF in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is a prime example of how a small investment and a lot of imagination can make busi- ness more productive. In 1984, Stew- art Cheifet arrived from California to assume the position as President of WITF. In just over two and a half years, Cheifet's visionary ideas about com- puting have changed the way the sta- tion operates. From the outside, the changes might seem unnoticeable. From the inside, the employees agree, the changes at WITF are both substan- tial and permanent. "It has been a relatively modest in- vestment in software, and it's not a lot of fancy stuff;' said John Blair, WITF Senior Vice President and Station Manager. "It's Scripsit and a couple of other things that makes us able to do what we do. We've scarcely bought anything in terms of specialized pro- grams. It's all generic word process- ing, office management and telecommunications." Along with Cheifet came Mike Davidson to take on the position of Data Processing Manager. "Comput- ing was almost nonexistent when I ar- rived," Davidson remembered. "They had one laptop computer that the sta- tion manager used. At the last station where I worked, I used Tandy 6000 computers. Many of the applications we use here were developed at that station. However, we have modified them to suit our particular needs." is Davidson surveyed the situation at WITF and decided the radio station Supenising Engineer David Peters uses Tandy computers to control WITF's satellite up link, was the area to be computerized first. "The radio station is now the biggest computer user at WITF," Davidson said. "It is running on a Tandy 6000 with five terminals. We added an addi- tional three-user card because we needed an easy way to have other peo- ple outside of the radio station connect to the 6000 with a modem." Scheduling solutions Computer applications at WITF are based on generic, multiuser software packages customized by Davidson. "We have two basic programs on the Tandy 6000, Scripsit 16 and FilePro 16 Plus," Davidson said. "We use Scripsit to write press releases and to generate our program log, and FilePro for our databases." The program log details the music programming of the radio station for every block of time during the day and is used both internally and as copy for the station magazine. Ap- prise, which is distributed monthly to WITF's more than forty thousand sub- scribers. "To create the program log; we use a master week file with each day as a separate document," David- son explained. "Programming that stays the same week after week is en- tered into the master log; areas where programming changes are left blank. We copy a master Monday, for exam- ple, and make it a specific Monday with a date, and then fill in the blanks with programming. It used to take about an hour and a half to compile and type the log, now it takes about fifteen minutes." Of course, programming can't be entered into the log until it is sched- uled. The radio station programs fifty hours of music each week. Filling that time with music, once a monumental Communications Coordinator Brian Clark uses a Tandy KHH) to compile WITF's monthly magazine. task, has been simplified through the use of one of Davidson's database crea- tions. Before the Tandy 6000, the mu- sic director would type a play list for each day of the month. The station manager would also make a list of con- certs scheduled to be aired during the month that would preempt blocks of time normally programmed by the sta- tion. The lists would then be literally cut and pasted together to create a merged document for each day of the month. "It would take two or three days to cut and paste," Davidson said. "Then the sheets were taken to some- one in the communications depart- ment who would retype all the information, which was a total waste of time. It was taking nearly two weeks to get the music scheduled." Cue the computer Davidson developed applications for both the music director and the station manager that could later be merged into one document. When the music director wants to schedule a work of music the software first asks if a compact disc or a long playing album is being scheduled. "We've put our compact disc library in one database under FilePro. The albums haven't been entered into a database yet. There are about 30,000 of them and they're not used that much," Davidson explained. You can search by either a compact disc number, a composer, a specific work, or a holiday. All of that information was coded as it was put into the compact disc library." Once the selections are made, the computer checks to make sure a particular block hasn't been over programmed. "The selections have to end," Blair said. "Our listeners don't understand fad- ing out for the news." While the music director is schedul- ing music, the station manager, work- ing at another terminal, enters concert information into the computer using Scripsit. "I assemble all the program- ming for our schedule from their input and then do an export, which sends these files to an ASCII file which I then merge with my master guide list- ings," Davidson said. "I end up with a master ASCII file of the entire month for radio programming and then send that to our communications depart- ment's Tandy 1000 by a modem." Once received at the communica- tions department, the radio program log is proofed and edited. It is then transmitted to the in-house typesetter which is hard-wired to the Tandy 1000. "We are now transferring everything electronically" Davidson said. "It has cut probably a week and a half to two weeks off of the time it takes to put the program guide together." Going station-wide Another phase of computerization that is underway at WITF is in the television station. Staff members can now access the Tandy 6000 in the radio station on another floor through a Tandy 1000 connected to a phone mo- dem. "We designed a program rights database that keeps track of the pro- grams that the television station buys. We can generate reports listing when the station's rights start and expire and how many airings are allowed, plus keep track of when each program was aired. The television section is also changing over to do its program log the same way that radio does," Davidson said. "We're looking into getting the television station a hard-wire connec- tion to the 6000." The latest department to begin us- ing computers at WITF is the business office which just acquired two Tandy 1000 SXs to handle their budget pro- jections which were previously done with pencil and paper. "Now we're looking at adding stations that are free standing, but connected. If we could get everything connected to the busi- ness office, we could expedite a lot of I). it. i Processing Manager Mike Davidson created the applications that brought WITF into the computer age. our accounting and project costing," Blair said. "These are things that eve- rybody wants, but we haven't devel- oped the applications yet. Given what we have been able to do with literally a very few thousand dollars, we will probably end up putting in our own system. We like the flexibility." The Sports \ftwork iwws center is un electronic switching yard for up-to-the- minute sports information. The world of sports is a Pennsylvania company's oyster and a multiuser computer its pearl. When an avid sports (an on the East coast wants to know the score of a college loot hall game in progress on the West coast, what is the best wax to find out? When a local television news program *s sports department needs fi- nal baseball scores for its late evening broadcast, to whom do they torn? More than ten million times last year, sports fans turned to Dial Sports for score information. And for an esti- mated 200 information providers, in- cluding broadcasters, sports bars and casinos. The Sports Network provided sports nexvs as quickly as it happened on the held, 20 These two businesses are the two halves of Communicationsleam, Inc., a sports information firm in Hun- tingdon Valley, Pennsylvania. Each year, Dial Sports provides recorded phone messages to millions of fans in cities across the United States and Canada. The Sports Network is a sports information sen ice sold by sub- scription to iudix idiials and businesses who depend on having tin* most up-to- date spurts information available. Thanks to two Tandy 6000 computers, CommunicationsTeam is the team no one has been able to beat in the busi- ness of sports information services. Dial Sports, the creation of Mickey Charles, a Philadelphia area sports au- thority and radio personality was launched when Charles xvon a bid xvith the local Bell operating company to provide telephone sports information in the area. The company grew rapidly when it xvon a contract from AT&T to proxide a similar service on a nation- al scale. A better mousetrap When the company began provid- ing the Dial Sports services, it quickly became apparent that the syndicated sports nexvs sen ices being used could not provide the speed, versatility, or variety of information the company wanted to provide to its callers. The obvious solution was to form its own information gathering function. "Within a relatively short period of time, our own efforts at news gather- ing in sports were surpassing those of the existing services," said Bill Rohrer, The Sports Network's General Man- ager. "It was at that point that we started to think seriously about taking the information we were gathering for the phone services and sharing it with others" The decision to package and sell the company's sports news services prompted the creation of the compa- ny's second business venture — The Sports Network. CommunicationsTeam 's Mickey Charles. As CommunicationsTeam began building its own news gathering ser- vice, management realized an imme- diate need for a sophisticated computer system that would allow personnel to condense the dizzying amount of scores, statistics and news that make up a typical clay in the world of sports into a product that was in a format customers could easily use. "We realized that we needed a com- puter to help us, and we wanted a good computer, but not one of those won- derful \veYc-going-to-attack-Mars-in- the-morning' type things," Charles laughed. "When we purchased the computers, our original intent was simply to feed our information around the country, not for the phone service but for the wire service. Once we had the computers, we started to add ter- minals and now we use computers eve- n-where. Everyone in the office has a terminal on his desk and inputs to the computer. Without the computer, we would lie very lost." "We found a consultant in our area who specialized in programming for Tandy equipment and who knew the 6000s intimately," Rohrer said. "Con- sidering the flexibility and capacity the Tandy 6000 offered, it seemed to be the best buy in the marketplace. We had to buy two computers because we needed a fully redundant system. We cannot afford to be out of business for anything longer than minutes." The programs that drive The Sports Network and the score tracking sys- tem are complex in design but are also easy to use. Menus guide a scoreboard operator through the process of mak- ing scoring updates and code numbers assigned to teams allow for changes to be made with minimal keystrokes. Since many sporting seasons overlap, scoreboard operators may be covering basketball, hockey and baseball on the same day. "We have covered over 200 games in a single day," Rohrer said. "The multiuser environment is obvi- ously very important to us." Built for speed To CommunicationsTeam, one of the most important aspects of covering sports is delivering scoring updates quickly. "The system is designed so that it is literally possible for us to have a touchdown in the NFL transmitted over our network to our customers within ten seconds or sooner of the event occurring on the field," ex- plained Rohrer. "Generally, for most events in sports, we sav that if what happens on the field is not delivered within a minute of the action occur- ring, considering all the activity we encounter on a Saturday in September, something has broken down in the sys- tem. At most times, average time be- tween the event and transmission is somewhere between thirty and forty seconds; it has to be that fast." To get scoring updates at the speed the company and its customers de- mand, CommunicationsTeam uses three methods of news gathering. One method posts stringers in the press boxes at games with a direct phone line to the company's scoreboard oper- ator. The stringer calls the operator as soon as there is a change in scoring. In addition to stringers, the com- pany is now utilizing four satellite dishes to follow games electronically. The dishes feed twenty- five TV sets set up in the news center. "We monitor as many games ourselves as we can, be- cause it's quicker than using string- ers," Rohrer said. "Anything that we Terminals connected to the Tandy 600() allow multiple operators to send out scoring updates. can do to pare down seconds in the reporting of events is to our competi- tive advantage." The third method is to call out by phone to the sporting event. Score- board operators have the courtside phone numbers for every game being played even where. If a game is not on television, a stringer has not been as- signed, or technical difficulties make other communication impossible, scoreboard operators can call court- side periodically for scoring updates. As the largest user of The Sports Network's services. The Dial Sports services immediately know of any news breaks or scoring changes. The service is subdivided by city, and the report is custom tailored for each city. "The service in a particular city will be updated as frequently as every five minutes or even faster depending on the flow of events," Rohrer explained. "If the person who is responsible for the service in a particular city has just given a report and an important final comes in, that operator can put that update on the phone service right away; within the same period of sec- onds that The Sports Network can transmit it." In closing, Charles explained the success and rapid growth of Com- municationsTeam very simply. "We know what the public wants," he ex- plained with a smile. "Consequently, we have set the pace. We are in more cities with sports than anyone else be- cause we do our homework and we know the market" 21 Big success on a Computers help to make a California securities brokerage efficient small v\\\\\\!!!/.fe. California's Silicon Valley, a small area wedged between San Francisco and San Jose, received its distinctive name because of the role the area has played in the computer industry. Not every business in the area was built around the silicon chip, however. Some enterprises have adopted com- puter technology as a refinement for types of businesses that existed long before the computer revolution. One such company is Foothill Secu- rities, Inc. of Los Altos, California. Founded in 1962, Foothill Securities, through its main office in Los Altos and sixteen branch offices in Northern California, has grown into a large inde- pendent company whose sales in 1986 exceeded $31 million. Investment securities brokerages are nothing new to this area. However, according to Owner and President Rex Gardiner, the computer technology employed at his firm has been instru- mental in bringing the company to its successful status. "We envision a very bright future," he smiled. is a tight 352 square feet. Packed within these four walls are the firm's four employees — two full-time and two part-time — and their five comput- ers. "Everybody says I've got to get more space," exclaimed Gardiner. "What I say is, we're going to get an- other computer, we're going to be more efficient and we're going to stay within this space." Storage and beyond Gardiner has been fascinated with microcomputers since their introduc- tion and understandably so. The bro- kerage business, of necessity, carries with it veritable mounds of paperwork. In addition to essential client informa- tion, data regarding transactions, pay- roll and commissions, and investment product types requires meticulous re- cord keeping. Perhaps what is most amazing about Foothill Securities' success is the small scale on which such a large enterprise operates. The company headquarters 22 Thus, Gardiner welcomes the con- cept of microcomputers in his business. "At first, they said you could run a business on 4K of memory. Then they said it would take 16K, and then 32K, which turned out to be true," Gardiner said. "I was more concerned with stor- age. When they came out with a com- puter with two disk drives, 1 decided it was time to move. We bought a Radio Shack Model III with 32K and ran our general ledger and our database. When the Model 4 came out, we con- verted to it because it could do things the Model III couldn't. "When we finally came to the point where we were going to upgrade from TRS-DOS to MS-DOS, we weren't sure what we were going to do. At that point we debated again: IBM, or Com- paq, or Tandy," said Rex Gardiner's son, Steve, who has created all of the company's computer applications. "We looked over all the options, and debated it, and decided to stick with Tandy. Good products, good service, good support, and good prices. We bought three Tandy 3000s. One has a 35-meg hard disk in it and a co- processor and is running XENIX. The other two 3000s each have a 20- megabyte hard disk." Multiuser databases To keep track of business and pro- mote productivity, Steve Gardiner has developed three databases. The trans- action blotter is a database that was set up to keep track of the company's transactions in compliance with Secu- rities and Exchange Commission regu- lations. When a representative makes a sale, the order is written on a four- part sales ticket, one part of which is sent to the company office. "This ticket is the heart of our sys- tem," Gardiner explained. The sales ticket contains all the necessary infor- mation on the investment, the investor and the representative to feed the data needs of the blotter. Once the informa- tion from the sales ticket is in the data- base, it can be accessed using any of the inputs (ticket number, investor, etc.) as a reference point. When a sale is made by one of the representatives, the company is auto- matically paid its commission by the investment underwriter. "When the commission check comes in, it is ac- companied by a statement indicating the representative, the amount of the commission, and the investor," ex- plained Steve. "We find the transac- tion that matches the commission being paid and then go into the data- base and mark the ticket paid on that date and the amount of the commis- sion. The check is then entered and the two should balance out to zero." scale and profitable. To further increase efficiency, the transaction blotter has been combined with the incoming commission checks enabling the company to run payroll on the computer. The information from the commissions are fed into a spreadsheet which calculates each representative's commission, their manager's override commission and a variety of other calculations including a statement showing the orders for which they are being paid and any backlogged orders. "Our databases do a lot more than calculate payroll," Gar- diner said. Another part of the payroll program makes a printout for each branch man- ager of all orders for the week sorted by representative, plus all orders pending. The transaction database is also used to print quarterly and annual statements for each representative listing their production sorted by cus- tomer, investment and commission amount. "These quarterly and annual statements are interesting to the rep- resentatives because they find that a high percentage of their commission comes from just a few people," Gar- diner said. "We have the data coded in so many ways that we can print it out any way we want." 22 To keep track of the company's many product offerings, another data- base was developed which lists invest- ment products approved by the company for sale by representatives. "The hardest part of our whole busi- ness, harder than keeping track of commissions or representatives, is keeping track of the investment pro- grams that we have cleared and ap- proved for sale," Gardiner explained. After trying several methods over the years to keep track of products, Gar- diner decided to enter everything re- garding any investment program into one database. From the product data- base, which is updated daily, a product printout is created and distributed to representatives monthly. A third database keeps track of the company's more than 60 registered representatives. This database allows for storage and easy retrieval of perti- nent employee information such as employment date, what licenses each representative holds, company code number, and personal information such as address and phone number. Data by phone Plans are underway to create yet another database that will be used as an electronic bulletin board and for electronic mail between the branches and the home office. In addition, the branches will be able to access the in- house databases. This will be the com- pany's second attempt at an on-line information system. "We started using a bulletin board system for our managers that would allow them to call up and see our cur- rent product listings. We tied the com- puter into an 800 phone line," said Steve. "We couldn't get the data on line efficiently with that computer," Gardiner added. "On a network sys- tem, information has to have time value. If it's out of date it doesn't do you any good." Foothill plans to pur- chase another Tandy 3000 that will be dedicated to the task of operating the bulletin board system. "With the new computer, the bulletin board will be easy to maintain," Steve said. It would be safe to say Foothill Secu- rities is dependent on its computer system. "There's no way we could have handled the volume we do now without computers," exclaimed Gar- diner. "We've had examiners tell us we have the most efficient operation they've seen. One of them asked me how much more volume we could do. I don't see any reason why we couldn't do double what we do right now with- out doing much more work." "Basically, our long term goal is to be the lowest net cost producer in the industry," emphasized Gardiner. "Our computers, and our plans for them, will undoubtedly help us realize that goal." 23 Radio Shack and education: When microcomputers made their debut in classrooms in the late 1970's, a hue and cry re- sounded throughout the educational community proclaiming that the devices were the harbin- gers of an Ocwellian future with the education of America's youth controlled by machines instead of people. Far from this prophecy, in classrooms today, the microcomputer has been accepted as mere!) another learning tool, albeit a very pow- erful one. In just a few short years, microcomputers ha\e found their way into a high percentage of Ameri- ca's over 100.0(H) primary and secondary schools as well as its 3,300 colleges and universities. According to Dataquest Inc., a research firm based in San Jose, California, of public schools in 1985, an estimated 75.88 percent of primary schools, 89.93 percent of secondary schools, and 71.42 percent of colleges and universities were using personal computers. It is projected that by 1990, the penetration will be 99 percent at all levels of education. In terms of expenditures and size, the education market represents one of the nation's largest industries with a vast potential for microcomputers. The success of microcomputers in the class- room is predicated on a number of factors, not the least of which is their popularity in the busi- ness world. Parents, teachers and administrators reason that students must be computer literate to compete for future employment. The integra- tion of computer literacy into the curriculum lends itself to real work situations for students and increased productivity throughout the learning process. Demands of the marketplace The proliferation of computer usage in educa- tion, however, has proved to be something of an accomplishment. Due to unique circumstance*, the educational marketplace requires special at- tention on the part of those who would sell their wares to schools. 21 Realizing these special requirements. Radio Shack established an Education Division in 1980 to address the needs of educators. Today, Radio Shack is recognized as one of the "Big Four** microcomputer manufacturers prominent in the educational community along with Apple, Com- modore and IBM. The achievement of this status for Radio Shack is a result of the company's dedication to servic- ing the needs of the education field in general, not just acting as a retailer of computers. To accommodate schools in their computerization efforts. Radio Shack implemented a variety of programs designed for the educational environ- ment. In addition to forming a nationwide sales force of educational specialists and coordinators who understand the particular requirements of educational institutions, Radio Shack initiated special pricing structures and procurement ar- rangements for schools. In 1981, Radio Shack began a program which ofTers free computer literacy training to educa- tors to help them become familiar with comput- ers. By 1983, over 400,000 teachers had completed this training. That same year, Tandy Corporation's President, Chairman and CEO John V. Roach was recognized by then Secretary of Education Terrel H. Bell for Radio Shack's significant contribution to computer literacy through the teacher training program. Another important program initiated by Tandy Corporation/Radio Shack in support of the educational community is the Tandy Educa- tional Grants Program. Established in 1983, the grants program is designed to promote research and development activ ities regarding microcom- puters in an educational environment. Grants submissions are evaluated by an independent review board. Educational institutions selected for grants receive Tandy computer equipment. Since its inception, over 1.2 million dollars in computer equipment have been awarded to Computers and commitments schools through the Tandy Educational Grants Program. In 1984, in its effort to further promote educa- tional computing, Tandy Corporation joined forces with the University of Texas at Austin College of Education to sponsor the Conference on Technology and Education. Held each spring, the conference is attended by educators at all levels and features presentations on timely top- ics by leaders in the educational field. Since its debut, the conference has taken on international proportions and has been joined in sponsorship by prestigious educational institutions that in- clude the University of Edinburgh (Scotland) Department of Artificial Intelligence; the Uni- versity of Tennessee Department of Interna- tional Studies; the University of Southern California; and the Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS). Seeking software solutions While microcomputers were initially utilized in the classroom to teach basic programming skills, they are now being used in nearly every curriculum area from reading and language skills to business classes. While a variety of software is available, schools often desire software tailored to coincide with other curricula media. In an effort to help provide this type of software, Radio Shack actively supports over 100 educational software publishing companies in their develop- ment efforts. This support is highlighted by an annual Publishers' Workshop hosted by Radio Shack where publisher representatives attend seminars, receive computer product briefings and hear presentations from Tandy Corporation/ Radio Shack management. Technology for Teaching Radio Shack has long been a leader in com- puter technology in general and specifically in the educational arena. In 1979, the company introduced the first low-cost network svstem designed specifically for classroom use. This sys- tem, the Network 1, and its successors, the Net- works 2, 3, and 4, represent Radio Shack's dedication to the education community through constant product development and enhance- ment to meet the increasing computer needs of school systems. These network products have enabled schools to share information and learn- ing resources through special software versions developed for Radio Shack's microcomputers, notably the Models 1, III, 4, Color Computer and, most recently, the Tandy 1000 family. The commitment continues Radio Shack continues its commitment to the advancement of technology in education with a variety of innovative school-oriented computer products. One such innovation is the Trackstar 128 Apple emulation board from Diamond Com- puter Systems, Inc. Trackstar is designed to al- low schools to run most Apple microcomputer software on the Tandy 1000 SX, in addition to DOS software developed for PC-compatibles. This gives school administrators a wider choice of software than is available using just Apples or PC-compatibles. According to William D. Gattis, Vice Presi- dent of Radio Shack's Education Division, ex- ploring software applications will soon be the central focus of educational computing. "The hardware is the means to an end. We are very competitive with our product line. Our concern for quality software for the educational environ- ment is reflected in our support of educational publishers and relationships with ofher educa- tional vendors. It is an important focus for us." It has been the philosophy of Tandy Corpora- tion to meet the needs of computer users with the technology and support necessary to turn complex problems into sensible solutions. Through its commitment to education, Tandy Corporation/Radio Shack has made a commit- ment to the future. 25 Computer educat Bringing a school system into the Information Age requires foresight, funding and plain old determination. 'Hie pastoral piney woods indig- enous to Gaston Count), North Carolina, provide a picturesque fa- cade for an area teeming with the activity that accompanies an up- surge in its economy and, subse- quently, its population. The answer is a resounding yes. In fact, Gaston County oflers one of the most innovative programs in the country, Gaston County also has the distinction of being the first school district in the nation to install Radio Shacks MS-DOS ver- sion of the Network 4 Shared Learning System. Located west of Charlotte, Cas- ton County is the fifth largest As public information coordina- tor for Gaston County Public Schools, Bonnie Rcidy fields a va- riety of questions from families re- locating to the area. Invariably, questions concerning opportuni- ties for students and computer ed- ucation arise. "It's one of the top five questions I get from families moving into this area. 'Do you of- fer computer education? "" school district in North Carolina with approximately 32, (KM) stu- dents in 55 schools. Establishing a quality computer education pro- gram required tremendous sup- port from the state, county board of education, administration, fac- ulty and citizens of the count). Historical sparks One individual, in particular, is credited with generating student interest and giving the Gaston County program direction. David Shellman, a chemistry teacher and self-taught computer enthusiast, had one free class period to teach programming on a TRS-SO Model I computer. Unlike a formal class, participating students chose to stay at school instead of heading home at the end of the day. Shell- man had soon sparked enough in- terest to have three full classes at North Gaston Senior High School. The rest, as they say, is history. Demand for the class grew rap- idly. Then in 1983, the Gaston County Board of Education ac- cepted the challenge to imple- ment computer education on a system-wide basis. Computer advi- sory and curriculum committees were formed. Shellman was subse- quently promoted to computer co- ordinator for the school district. Using local funding, the board of education instituted a plan to install stand-alone computers in the schools. Familiar with Radio Shack computers, Shellman rec- ommended installing TRS-80 Model III and Model 4 personal computers in seven high schools. Some would be linked together by Radio Shack's Network 3 Shared Learning System so students could share hardware and software. Of equal importance, teachers could control instruction. At about the same time, the state legislature allocated three years of funding to support com- puter education in all public schools. For Gaston County, the funds provided a ratio of tine com- puter per 50 students in grades K- 12 and approximately 30 cents per student for software. Hv the end of the three-year funding, technology had changed. 26 ion with a cause. Computers with the MS-DOS op- erating system became known as the industry standard. Sheliman and the Gaston County decision- makers took notice, along with many other educators. "We anticipated something new from Radio Shack for the Tandy 1000 and we wanted to he in an MS-DOS environment," explained Sheliman. "We felt our students would have a better advantage graduating in that environment." In fact. Radio Shack was on the verge of announcing the MS-DOS version of the Network 4 Shared Learning System. The floating ground The first lab was installed in February 1986 at Ashbrook Senior High School by Radio Shack per- sonnel. All systems were "CO" ex- cept for an erratic problem that became more frustrating with each passing day. A team of Radio Shack educational representatives, technicians and county electri- cians worked day and night, plus weekends, to find the solution. "It was May before we figured out what was wrong. We had changed everything. Radio Shack backed it all," explained Sheliman. "As it turned out, the problem was in our electrical wiring. The cul- prit was an ice machine with a floating ground wire." The school district dropped their original computer concept in favor of installing MS-DOS Net- work 4 labs in the remainder of their senior high schools. By this time, state funds were almost drained. The board was asked to allocate additional local funds to support the Network 4 decision. The board and citizens of Caston County came through once again with more than $180,000. "We felt like this was the net- work we were looking for. We could have gone with a business environment network but we were looking for isolation and priv acv so students couldn't copy each oth- er's files," said Sheliman. "Obviously, we looked at other systems but they were just too ex- pensive. I turned to Radio Shack because I had had good experi- ences with them." Today, every senior high school in Caston County has at least one Network 4 lab equipped with 20 Tandy 1000 student stations, a hard drive host computer and a printer. The Network 3 Systems and Model Ills and 4s have been moved into the junior high schools to meet the state mandate of com- puter literacy by the eighth grade. Sheliman is especially pleased with the availability of software compatible with the MS-DOS Net- work 4 System and the control networking gives the teacher. The curriculum, though not re- quired, is a mixture of BASIC and PASCAL programming with a strong emphasis on applications. "We feel in the future that this is the direction to go. Program- ming itself will be de-emphasized in computer-aided instruction. We really see more application pro- grams, like using computers in mathematics and science, becom- ing more popular." The use of Tandy computers in Caston County Public Schools goes far beyond networked labs. For example, computer-aided de- sign is being taught in high school drafting classes with the Tandy 2000 and Model 4s are incorpo- rated in special education and speech classes. A combination of Tandy 100(K, 1200s and 3000s is being utilized in administration and in teacher training. The Gaston County Pub- lic Schools Administration Build- ing has been equipped with a Tandy/3Coni Network System. Additionally, local school facili- ties are often used for adult com- puter education courses. "There's no doubt our strength- ened computer education program has been a strong selling point for our community's economic devel- opment," concluded Reidy. 27 The changing library: From card files to CD-ROM Q Robert Burr poses alongside the Crosby Library 's namesake. ijfc '^9mBmmg* i-r-L 1 ^.l mw ■* * mm gjyw & ■- 1 — - — Far from replacing books, that libraries must have in order to computers help a university keep running smoothly, library keep up with its bookish "Libraries are information-rich op- functions* erations," explained Robert Burr, the Crosby Library's Director. "In a li- The library has long been the focal brary, you are literally surrounded by point for academic activity on college all kinds of information, and there's campuses as students and faculty alike always the need to organize and re- browse the myriad shelves of books trieve that information. It's not only a and periodicals seeking information. matter of cataloging and finding books As microcomputers usher in the Age of or periodicals. We also have an admin- Information on today's campuses, tra- istrative office that has personnel re- ditional library functions are being cords, accounting records and almost updated using current technology anything else you'd find in any normal concepts. The Crosby Library at Gon- business application." zaga University in Spokane, Washing- Like many S|na ]| businesses, the li- ton is no exception. Named for Bing brarv has Umited Bnaocial and per- Crosby, Gonzaga's most famous alum- sonnel resources . According to Burr, nus, the Crosby Library has entered the compu ter system has increased | the Information Age with a Tandy lhe e ffj c j ency f the library's opera, . computer system. Hons « We send i etters to d onors ac . As libraries must process huge knowledging the more than 5,000 amounts of data, it is obviously impor- books we receive as donations each tant for them to keep track of the vast year," Burr noted. "Writing that many number of books, magazines and jour- letters on a typewriter is enough work -* nals in circulation. Not so obvious, but for a full-time employee. With the just as important, are the administra- computer, most of these can be han- tive records, financial and otherwise, died by a form letter." From the beginning, Tandy comput- ers have been the computers of choice at Gonzaga's Crosby Library. Burr re- called, "Our first computer was a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III. I was writing a few articles, and became in- terested in a word processor. When we saw how much easier a computer could make writing, we immediately became interested in automating more of our functions." Now, the library has an entire fleet of Tandy computers, including a Tandy 3000 HD, two 1000 HDs, two 1200 HDs, fixe Model Ills, a Model 4 and a Model 100. Serving the computers is a sophisticated array of dot-mat riv and daisy-wheel printers, along with mo- dems in various configurations. Paper replacement ( Computers have touched — in fact, revolutionized — almost every area of the Crosby Library's operations. One application that has been a boon to operations is a simple one: word proc- essing. Virtually all tevt processing in the library is performed on Tandy com- puters using either SuperScripsit, Mi- crosoft Word 3.0 or WordPerfect 4.1. Burr remarked, "As a result, diskettes ha\e replaced paper as the primary medium for interoffice communica- tion." Draft policies or reports which require staff critique and revision are routinely circulated on diskette rather than paper. "This has drastically re- duced our paper files — which is im- portant in a building like ours, where space is at a premium." Another application that has revolu- tionized the library's operations is da- tabase management, using pfs:file, dBASE HI Plus and Reflex software. "The periodicals/serials list is an excel- lent example of the new possibilities microcomputers have created for us," Burr said. As periodicals are usually relevant to more than one field of study, the search/sort capabilities of database management programs make it easy to generate subject-specific lists on de- mand for library users. Additionally, management can retrieve a variety of information such as cost data for sup- porting particular programs, titles re- ceived from specific vendors and expenditures made against various budget lines. Historical cost analysis by title, vendor and subject area is now available in minutes, whereas before it would have required literally weeks of manual effort to produce. "We are also able to produce overdue book notices Students Melissa Mu/.utko mid Philip Honum from one of the library S computers. using database management software, and the work that would normally take days to accomplish is finished in a few- hours," Burr commented. "There are also a number of new software applications which we plan to introduce over the next one to three years," Burr continued. "One area that we are especially excited about is (ID- ROM technology. Many of the on-line databases accessed by the library are becoming available on compact disk, which can be searched locally at a greatly reduced cost. The C ID format is also being used by publishers as an alternative to paper and microfiles." •♦•.database programs make it easy to generate lists on demand for library users* Other future applications include desktop publishing, statistical analysis to better support faculty research, and project management to help plan and execute special projects with interac- tive variables of people and equip- ment. Said Burr, "We're also interested in presentation graphics, which we could use to prepare instruc- tional materials as well as for enhanced administrative support. We're also reference information in the database looking into a network system that would link all of our computers to- gether to make our operations more efficient." One story Mr Burr likes to tell about the library's conversion to computers concerns his former secretary; Mrs. Ruth Seelhammer. "Mrs. Seelhammer is a very dear lady, but not one you would think of as being high-tech ori- ented. She had planned to retire in a couple of years, but we made the deci- sion to go ahead and put a Model III on her desk anyway," Burr said. "The day the machine was set up and her type- writer moved to the other side of the room, she was so upset that she went home with a migraine!" But Mrs. Seelhammer soon changed her mind about using computers. "Within a couple of months, she told me she didn't know how she'd ever gotten along without it." After retiring from her post as Ad- ministrative Secretary, Mrs. Seelham- mer became the curator of a rare book collection at the Crosby library. "When she left, she took her Model III with her," Burr remarked. "She's still using it, too, and very happily." Budgetary benefits The library utilizes the "what if ca- pabilities of VisiCalc and SupcrCalc 3 spreadsheet software to calculate budget proposals with automatic ad- justments for projected cost increases. "The relationship among expenditure lines in the library is very complex," 29 Burr explained. "Any increase in funds for book purchases requires a propor- tionate increase in several other cate- gories. With spreadsheets, we are able to test alternatives quickly and easily." The graphics capabilities of Super- Calc 3 have been useful in supporting the library's budget requests. Said Burr, "Our experience has shown that a line or bar graph showing compara- tive rates of book cost escalation and budget increases over a five-year per- iod is far more persuasive in justifying a fundi ng request than a simple recita- tion of the numbers.** Microcomputer telecommunica- tions have brought about some radical changes for the Crosby Library. Most of the traditional paper indexing and abstracting tools which libraries have relied upon to locate information are Electronic communication is the norm rather than the exception," now accessible on-line via microcom- puter. Tandy computers are used daily to search on-line databases in response to user requests, effectively providing an entirely new library service. Administrative use of telecommuni- cations has also been significant. Ac- cording to Burr, Tandy computers have yielded important savings of staff time on a variety of projects requiring data input to the university mainframe computer or other mainframes. The majority of new book orders are now placed with publishers and distribu- tors by electronic mail, with increased speed, lower overall cost, and greater reliability. "Electronic communication with other libraries, especially the sending and receipt of interlibrarv loan re- quests, is now the norm rather than the exception," said Burr, "1 also rely on electronic mail to keep in touch with the office during business travel and, quite frequently, to send work done at home back to the office on evenings or weekends" Future functions "We have achieved tremendous gains in productivity," Burr said. "But we're not stopping yet. There are still main library functions which continue to be performed manually that we could automate in the future." 30 Close-up Computers bring the library to a Canadian reservation fi£&a \ -M ' "\ I'lH^i, rllt ■■■^^ yilaF ( J'Jil > JT ft If vf t L I E if! Computers are opening new frontiers for ConzUga University and a group of Native American In- dian students isolated in the moun- tains of Canada. The school, in conjunction with the Canim Lake Indian Band, has begun an Exten- sion Undergraduate Degree Pro- gram that serves the Indians' reservation almost TOO miles away in the province of British Columbia. Students in the program are able to work for a bachelor's degree in Native American Leadership. The primary areas of study are educa- tion and business management — areas that the Indians feel will help them improve from within. What* s unique about this first-of- its-kind program is that the stu- dents are able to complete the degree program while staving at their reserve — they only have to travel to the university for six weeks each summer. Acknowledged Burr, "The band members prefer to re- main on the reserve and contribute within their own culture. Also, the mountainous terrain and hard win- ters in the Pacific Northwest can make travel almost impossible. With computers, we have been able to overcome those barriers." Using a Tandy 3000 computer with an external CD-ROM drive, students are able to access the Crosby Library's entire catalog. The students request study materi- als from the catalog via electronic mail, and the library sends the ma- terials either by mail oi; via facsimile equipment. Students also use the computer as a word processor, and send assignments to the library for their instructors to review. The Extension Undergraduate Degree Program may be a model for similar programs in the future. Said Burr, "The Canadian govern- ment and the reserve are extremely interested in the program's poten- tial. It is a highly innovative pro- gram, and we are excited about its prospects for success" I I III I I • 1 I I I 4 n ■ i m Tradition dictates that during college football games, halftime is the domain of the marching band. Whether the band is spelling out the school name or interlocking two rotating circles, hours have been spent in detailed planning to create the band formation. How many hours are spent creating formations depends on the method used. Directors of the University of Florida Gator Band in Gainesville, Florida, have found that by using a Tandy 1000 computer to design marching formations, the once laborious task is sim- plified and the time required reduced. The execution of a formation is bro- ken down into intervals, steps that each member must make individually in or- der for the band as a whole to "fall into formation" at the exact same mo- ment. At each interval, deter- mined by counts in the music, a band member must progress from one designated position on the field to the next. Since the crea- tion of a formation might take as many as eight intervals to com- plete, and a half time show might consist of as many as eight forma- tions, it's easy to understand why a band director would appreciate a short cut to making charts for up to sixty-four intervals. Bruce Ammann, assis- tant director for the Gator Band, creates and maps out formations on a Tandy 1000 using Music Education In- centives software. "The com- puter speeds up the process of creating formations," Ammann reported. "If I do a formation by hand, I sketch a design, then I take that design and put down dots for each band member. In order for a formation to work, those dots have to be in the right spot, at exactly the right interval." When Ammann creates formations on the computer, he has room, and time, for experimentation. "The com- puter creates a design; if I like it, the computer puts the design exactly where I want it on the field." Once a design has been selected, Ammann can then begin assigning band members to the design. When the de- sign is filled, Ammann begins the process again by adding a complementary design into the larger forma- tion until all band members are on the field. Once all of the smaller designs are incorporated into the larger formation, an animation phase can be initiated for an on-screen simulation of Ijow the formation will look in execution. When satisfied with the way a formation works, Am- mann prints a set of charts that are used as a guide for band members. The finished product looks like a foot- ball field with dots indicating the position of band members. Each dot pin-points a band member's posi- tion on the field at a specific interval of a formation. "If I have three intervals in a formation" explained Ammann, "one interval is the beginning, one is eight counts later, and the other is eight counts after that. The band members go out on the field and stand where their dot is on the first chart, then they turn to the second chart and move to their dot on that chart." The program itself contains more than a hundred designs that can be used to create formations. To further expand the system's utility, Ammann purchased a Tandy GT-2000 Graphics Tablet that allows him to supple- ment the designs standard with the software. "The de- vice allows us to take a march- ing chart from another marching band or a design that I draw on a piece of paper and digitize the formation into the computer" Ammann explained. "Tin not limited to just the shapes included in the program." Before purchasing their Tandy 1000, the Gator Band already owned a Radio Shack- Model 4 computer which they used for book- keeping, storing alumni and band member addresses and maintaining an inventor) of the music library and band uniforms. "The software vendor for the marching band program recom- mended the Tandy 1000 as the computer on which their software ran best," Ammann said. "After our good expe- rience with the Model 4, we were happy to stay with Tandy computers" Since computerizing, Ammann has found that the band's formation possibilities may not have increased considerably; he can draw any design by hand the computer can generate. What is important from his point of view is the time he saves. Since creating forma- tions is only one of Ammann's duties, finding a method that allows the task to be completed as satisfactorily as before — while saving time — is a welcome relief. 31 Radio /hack COMPUTER CENTERS A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION P.O. Box 2625, Fort Worth, Texas 761 13 BULK RATE U.S. POSTAGE PAID Radio Shack A Div. of Tandy Corp. IF UNDELIVERABLE, DO NOT RETURN ANS-887 The best decision for millions of businesses, educators and home users* Quality. Reliable performance is our design objective. Our engineering team takes pride in the exceptional qual- ity they can produce utilizing our proprietary test equipment. The result: A 33,000-hour mean time be- tween failure. Why Tandy Computers? Because there is no better value* Compatibility. Our MS-DOS® based computers are the best-selling PC compatibles in America. Tandy 286- and 386- based business systems are OS/2 w ready as well. Technology. Innovative design, custom circuitry and distinguish- ing features make our computers more than just clones. Plus, every Tandy desktop computer is de- signed and built in our own USA manufacturing plants. Connectivity. Tandy PC compatibles can be linked into a work- group for communications with other PCs and main- frame computers alike. Longevity. Technology has been our business for sixty-six years. In 1977, we became the first company to successfully manufacture and market a personal computer — nobody's been in the business longer. Tandy Computers: Because there is no better value.